Revealing the PID Causes: Beyond Infectious Factors

Amisha Jain
Medically reviewed by
Dr. Kaushal

Review medical content on WOW Rx Pharmacy, so that accurate drug use information is easily accessible to everybody.
Dr. Akansha is a licensed Clinical Pharmacologist. She possesses remarkable knowledge in Pharmacovigilance, prescription analysis, drug information, and drug safety services. Additionally, she is a keen learner and an educator.

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pid causes

Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) is a condition that affects a woman’s reproductive organs.

It happens when bacteria spread from the vagina to the uterus, fallopian tubes, or ovaries. 

It can be caused by infections or untreated Sexually Transmitted Diseases.

Understanding the causes of Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) is essential for early detection and prevention. 

Several factors can increase the likelihood of developing PID, including a history of PID, damage to the cervix due to childbirth or miscarriage, and specific medical procedures.

Understanding these causes can help people protect their reproductive health. 

This article looks into various PID causes.

Causes of Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID)

Most cases of PID are caused by a bacterial infection. 

Occasionally, bacteria in the vagina can travel up into the reproductive organs.

Many different types of bacteria can cause PID. 

While these bacteria might not cause trouble in the vagina, they can lead to infection in other areas of the body.

Some of the common causes are as follows:

Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs)

STDSource: Denisfilm_From_Getty_Images
Sexually Transmitted disease written on black background

In many cases, PID is caused by a Sexually Transmitted Infection (STI). 

The primary cause of PID is typically a Sexually Transmitted Infection (STI) such as Gonorrhea, Chlamydia, or Mycoplasma Genitalium.

These bacteria primarily infect the cervix, where antibiotics can effectively treat them.

However, if left untreated, there’s a possibility that the bacteria could migrate into the female reproductive organs.

Chlamydia, if untreated, may progress to PID within a year.

While Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs) like Chlamydia and Gonorrhea are common culprits, PID can also be triggered by normal bacteria found in the vagina.

History of previous PID

Women with a history of PID are at an increased risk of recurrent episodes due to ongoing vulnerabilities in the reproductive system and potential residual damage

Moreover, multiple occurrences of PID can result in long-term health consequences like infertility and chronic pain.

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Cervical damage from childbirth or miscarriage

Trauma to the cervix during childbirth or miscarriage can create openings for bacteria, raising the chances of PID.

  • Childbirth trauma: Delivery may cause cervical tears, providing entry points for bacteria
  • Miscarriage complications: Cervical injuries from miscarriages can also facilitate bacterial invasion

Invasive procedures involving the cervix

Procedures like abortions, uterine inspections, or IUD insertions that open the cervix can introduce bacteria, leading to PID.

  • Sterile techniques: Proper sterile practices during such procedures are crucial to prevent infections
  • Post-procedure care: Timely follow-ups post-procedure help in monitoring and preventing complications like PID
Frequent vaginal douching disrupts the natural balance of bacteria in the vagina, increasing susceptibility to infections like PID. The practice of douching can introduce harmful bacteria into the reproductive tract, leading to inflammation and potential complications.


Appendicitis rarely leads to the spread of infection to the pelvis.

But if it occurs, it might manifest as Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID).

Appendicitis itself does not typically affect the pelvis.

However, its complications, such as an abscess formation, can extend to neighboring areas, including the pelvis.

If the infection from appendicitis reaches the pelvic region, it can lead to conditions like tubo-ovarian abscesses (TOA), which are more closely related to Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs) and PID.


In conclusion, Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) poses significant challenges to women’s health, potentially impacting fertility and leading to persistent discomfort if left untreated. 

PID typically occurs when untreated infections from sexual activity or previous infections, cervical injuries, or specific medical procedures have occurred.

So, it’s really important for people to learn about sexual health and see a doctor early if they think something’s wrong.

Also, we need to understand that things like appendix problems or cleaning the vagina too much can also lead to PID. 

It is not just about treating infections but also about taking care of our bodies in smart ways, like practicing safe sex, seeking prompt treatment for infections, and maintaining good hygiene.

By knowing all this, doctors and communities can help people protect their bodies better and stay healthy.

Frequently Asked Questions

What bacteria causes Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID)?

Most cases of Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) are caused by bacterial infections, commonly stemming from Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs) like Chlamydia, Gonorrhea, or Mycoplasma Genitalium. These bacteria can spread from the vagina or cervix to the reproductive organs, leading to PID if left untreated.

The two major causes of Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) are?

Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs) like Chlamydia and Gonorrhea are the two major causes of Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID). Untreated infections can lead to inflammation and scarring of the reproductive organs, causing PID.

How long before Chlamydia causes Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID)?

If Chlamydia is not treated promptly, it can advance to Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) in about a year, potentially leading to serious complications and affecting reproductive health. Seeking early treatment for Chlamydia is crucial to prevent PID.

What is Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID)?

PID is an infection or inflammation in the female reproductive organs like the uterus, vagina, and fallopian tubes. It often affects sexually active young women, mainly caused by sexually transmitted bacteria.

What are the common causes of Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID)?

Common causes of Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) include Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs) like Chlamydia and Gonorrhea, as well as other bacterial infections such as Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Mycoplasma Genitalium.

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