Bladder Inflammation: Symptoms, Causes and Treatment

Rishabh Mehta
Medically reviewed by
Dr. Kaushal

Review medical content on WOW Rx Pharmacy, so that accurate drug use information is easily accessible to everybody.
Dr. Akansha is a licensed Clinical Pharmacologist. She possesses remarkable knowledge in Pharmacovigilance, prescription analysis, drug information, and drug safety services. Additionally, she is a keen learner and an educator.

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Bladder inflammation the most common uti

Bladder inflammation, also called Cystitis, is an infection of the urinary tract. It is mainly caused by bacteria such as E. coli. However, other bacteria like Staphylococcus saprophyticus and Enterococcus or even fungi can also be the cause. 

Cystitis is more common in women, as one in three women develops an Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) once compared to one in twenty men. Children and older adults can also develop Cystitis. This implies that Bladder Inflammation knows no bounds of age or gender. 

Why is it so common? What causes it, and is there no way to prevent it? 

The article answers all these questions, exploring the symptoms, causes, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of Bladder Inflammation. 

Bladder Cystitis symptoms

The symptoms of Cystitis can vary according to age. They are as follows:

Common Cystitis symptoms

Symptoms common to both men and women include pain or a burning sensation when urinating, urgent or frequent urination, strong, smelly, or cloudy urine, blood in the urine, and stomach pain. A low-grade fever, nausea, vomiting, feeling unwell, having aches, or feeling sick and tired are also signs of Cystitis. 

Cystitis symptoms in children

Younger children can experience high temperatures due to Cystitis. You can feel it if you touch their stomach, back, or neck. Other symptoms are reduced appetite or poor weight gain, vomiting, diarrhea, inability to hold urine, irritability, and weakness. Other symptoms can match those of adults in older children. These may include dark or foul-smelling urine, lower back pain, and burning while urinating. 

Cystitis symptoms in older adults

Older adults with Cystitis may experience symptoms like shivering, shaking, wetting themselves, and behavior changes like confusion. Other common symptoms are a burning sensation while peeing, fever, chills, abnormal-smelling urine, pelvic pain, fatigue, nausea, vomiting, and frequent urination. 

Causes of Cystitis

Cystitis can be a complicated or an uncomplicated infection. E. coli is responsible for 75 to 95 percent of infections if they are uncomplicated UTIs. Other bacteria that can cause bladder inflammation are Klebsiella, Enterobacteriaceae, Proteus Mirabilis, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, and Enterococcus. The causes of complicated UTIs include  Enterobacter, Citrobacter, Pseudomonas, Enterococci, Staphylococci, Serratia, and even fungi. 

Risk factors for Cystitis

Besides causes, some risk factors of Bladder Inflammation increase the possibility of getting a bladder infection. As discussed earlier, gender is a differentiator in the case of bladder infection, as women are more likely to get Cystitis. 

However, the risk factors are further divided based on gender. 

Cystitis risk factor for women

Women likely to have Cystitis are those who:

  • Had sex recently 
  • Use spermicide and diaphragms
  • Are pregnant
  • Have Diabetes
  • Have a history of UTI
  • Are near Menopause
  • Experience urinary or fecal incontinence
  • Have kidney stones
  • Have a prolapsed bladder wall
  •  Are older
Did you know?
One to four million men and three to eight million women in the US have Cystitis. 

Cystitis risk factor for men

Men likely to have Cystitis are those who:

  • Are uncircumcised (have foreskin) 
  • Have penetrative anal sex
  • Have an enlarged prostate or other blockage of the bladder

Common risk factors for Cystitis

Risk factors common for males and females are:

  • Have difficulty in passing urine
  • Lack of bladder control due to nerve, brain, or spinal cord problems, such as multiple sclerosis, Parkinson’s disease, or Diabetes
  • Have a catheter (tube to drain urine ) inserted into the urethra
  • Have Diabetes

Cystitis diagnosis

The diagnosis of Bladder Inflammation involves urine analysis and imaging. A medical expert collects urine samples for a urine test to look for pus and bacteria. A urine culture test can help determine the type of bacteria responsible for the infection. In a few cases, an X-ray or ultrasound can be used to check for other problems, such as tumors or abnormalities. 

Untreated bladder infections can spread to the kidneys and cause a more serious infection called Pyelonephritis, which can be life-threatening. To avoid such complications, you are advised to consult a doctor, receive appropriate treatment, and complete your antibiotic course. 

Bladder Cystitis treatment

Bladder Inflammation can resolve itself. Sometimes, you can use management strategies to ease the discomfort. If the problem continues, you can consult your doctor for medication. 


You should drink plenty of water in case of Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) like Cystitis. It can help flush out the infection from the bladder. You can also take one teaspoon of baking soda with water or a commercial urinary alkaliser (medicine that reduces urine acidity) after consulting your doctor to decrease urination pain and frequency. Avoid acidic foods and drinks as they cancel out the effect of urinary alkalisers and increase the burning when passing urine. 



Antibiotics are the first-line treatment for infection and other symptoms, such as Cystitis bladder pain. According to the Cystitis treatment guideline, there is no single or best agent to treat uncomplicated Acute Cystitis bladder infection.

Choosing the right antibiotic depends on the effectiveness of the medicine, the resistance of bacteria, and the risk of adverse events. Some of the available options are Nitrofurantoin, Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, Fosfomycin, Ciprofloxacin (Ciplox 750 mg), and Amoxicillin-clavulanate (Augmentin 375). 

For simple infections, women are prescribed antibiotics for three days, while men for seven to fourteen days. In case of complications along with infection, such as pregnancy or diabetes, the treatment duration is mostly seven to fourteen days. 

Cystitis prognosis

Cystitis symptoms resolve within three days of starting antibiotic treatment. Simple UTIs resolve quickly in about 20 percent of women if hydration is increased. Recurrent infections are observed within six months in 25 percent of the women. The risk is higher for those with a history of UTIs. 

Cystitis prevention

There are some steps to avoid Bladder Inflammation and other UTIs. They include 

  • Drinking plenty of water
  • Urinating after sex
  • Using showers instead of bathtubs
  • Wiping from front to back to prevent the bacteria from entering the urethra
  • Gently wash the skin around the genitals
  • Avoiding hygiene products like deodorants around the genitals
  • Drinking cranberry juice (avoid with blood-thinning medicines) 
  • Using Estrogen creams for Menopausal women
  • Avoiding spermicide and diaphragms and switching to other birth controls


Bladder Inflammation is also known as Cystitis. It is a UTI that is mainly caused by the bacteria E. coli. However, sometimes other bacteria and even fungi can be responsible. Cystitis is characterized by abdominal pain, frequent urination, or changes in urine color. Women are more likely than men to have this infection. Moreover, people who have Diabetes, lack bladder control, have a catheter, and are sexually active are at a greater risk. 

If you experience symptoms related to Cystitis, consult a doctor for diagnosis. Your doctor may perform a urine or imaging test to confirm. If you have the infection, it will usually resolve by itself. You can try additional self-help strategies like drinking water, using baking soda and avoiding acidic food. Your doctor will prescribe antibiotics like Augmentin and Nitrofurantoin if needed. 

You can also consider certain practices to prevent Cystitis in the future. They include urinating after sex, gently washing the skin around the genitals, and avoiding products like deodorants around the genitals. Additionally, trying remedies like cranberry juice can be an effective and affordable way to minimize the risk of Cystitis and related discomfort. With the right care and treatment, the discomfort can be minimized, and Cystitis can go away without complications. 

Frequently Asked Questions

What is the term for inflammation of the bladder? 

The medical term for bladder inflammation is Cystitis. It is an Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) mainly caused by the bacteria E. coli. It is mainly characterized by tummy pain, frequent urination, and changes in urine color. 

Is there any Cystitis definition? 

Cystitis is bladder inflammation caused mainly by certain bacteria. In 75 to 95 percent of cases, E. coli is responsible for such UTIs. It is more common in women than men.

How to treat Cystitis? 

Cystitis can resolve itself. You can try self-help practices like drinking water, or mixing baking soda with water to ease discomfort. However, your doctor may prescribe antibiotics like Ciprofloxacin or Augmentin if the infection does not go away. You can buy Augmentin 375 from WowRxpharmacy.

Are there any Bladder Cystitis foods to avoid? 

You should avoid high-acid foods with Cystitis, as they can worsen burning during urination. Other foods to avoid are spicy foods, coffee, soda alcohol, chocolate, and caffeinated beverages, as they can trigger or worsen symptoms. 

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